300517 The stimulus for new bone formations.
Minimal essential strain (MES) refers to the threshold amount of stress applied to the structure which is necessary to elicit growth of new bone material. A force exceeding MES is required to signal the osteoblasts to move toward the periosteum and begin this transformation. MES is thought to be 1/10 of the breaking force needed to fracture the bone. Training effects have a positive relationship to bone density just as sedentary living habits play a role in the loss of bone density.
Training to increase bone formation
Programs designed to stimulate bone growth, also known as bone mineral density (BMS), will incorporate the following characteristics:
- Specificity of loading
2. Proper exercise selection
3. Progressive overload
Specificity of loading will see the exercise patterns emphasizing specific areas in need of assistance. New or unusual forces in varying angles of stress will enable your bones to adapt to the greater intensities. Military presses, bench presses, upright shoulder shrugs, push ups, chin ups, plus other similar exercises would help develop stronger upper body bones. Lower body exercises selections would be along the lines of these types of movement patterns: squats, calf raises, dead lifts, and straight leg dead lifts.
Exercise selection promotes osteogenic stimuli (factors that stimulate new bone formation) and will exhibit these characteristics: Compound exercise muscle movements consisting of multi joint, structural loading and varying force vectors. Such exercises are the squat, dead lift, military press and the bench press along with the Olympic style moves.
Greater than normal loads force the body to adapt in a positive manner regarding new bone formation. This response is greater if the load changes are dramatic and repetitive in nature. Younger bones may be more receptive to osteogenic changes in the load variance than older bones.
Variations of exercise selections
The body adapts quickly to imposed loads per the SAID (Specific Adaptation to Imposed Loads) principle. In order to prevent accommodation the exercises need to be varied on a periodic basis. There are many individual differences in the same exercise. As an example the squat has at least seventy variations! And these variations do not include any machine versions.
230517 Adaptation of Bone to Exercise
By Danny M. O’Dell, MA.CSCS*D
Background information-briefly stated
Bone is considered a connective tissue that when stressed, deforms and adapts as a result of the load. To meet the strain imposed upon the external structure caused by the bending, compressive, torsional loads and the muscular contractions at the tendinous insertion point’s osteoblasts migrate to the surface of the bone.
At the point of the strain, immediate modeling of the bone begins. Proteins form a matrix between the bone cells. This causes the bone to become denser due to the calcification process occurring during the growth response to the load.
The new growth occurs on the outside of the bone to allow the manufacture of new cells to continue in the limited space with in the bone itself. This outer layer is commonly known as the periosteum.
Adaptations take place at different rates in the axial skeleton (skull/cranium, vertebral, ribs, and sternum) and the appendicular skeleton (shoulder, hips, pelvis and the long bones of the upper and lower body-essentially the arms and legs). This is due to the differences in the bone types- trabecular (spongy) and cortical (compact) bone.
160517 The major keys to good bone health
*Exercise plays a highly beneficial role in maintaining bone integrity and preventing fractures by increasing the strength of the bones.
*Bone mineral density is directly related to long term physical activity via load bearing, impact exercise regimens.
*The loss of bone mineral density weakens the bones and makes them susceptible to a fracture.
*The sites most frequently fractured are in the hip, spine, and wrist.
Take care of your health by exercising, eating right and having yearly full physical exams.
090517 Osteoporosis strength training
High impact exercise such as these listed builds stronger bones
- Vertical jumps
- Skipping rope
- Jogging in place
- Knees semi straight hops in place
- Ankle hops
- March around your home or gym with dumbbells or extra weight on your shoulders
Weight bearing aerobics
- Walk with a set of dumbbells. Avoid repetitive motion injuries by switching up on your method of carrying the extra weight on your walk or run.
There is a delayed response of up to six months before changes in your bone mineral density will be noticeable. Weight bearing and bone load bearing lowers your risk of fractures.
020405 Improving your bone mineral density
Over time your bones gradually lose their strength and become porous and brittle. This can lead to bone fractures, and depending on the circumstances, a hospital stay.
The bones in your body are constantly evolving by a process known as remodeling, in which the old bone material is replaced by new bone material. A young person has the ability to make bone faster than it is broken down and it is this capability that causes bone mass to peak in the mid thirties. After that, the remodeling process is slower and bone may be lost than gained. This can lead to osteopenia and the more serious condition known as osteoporosis. It is this latter stage that can lead to fractures. Women automatically lose bone integrity due to menopause.
Menopause causes a decline in the production of the hormone estrogen an important ingredient for bone health. Bone loss can rapidly accelerate anywhere from one to three percent a year until age sixty. At this point bone loss decreases but doesn’t stop completely.
Men also lose bone density, but not at the higher rates of a female. Moreover the onset of the men’s osteoporosis generally shows up a decade later than a woman’s.
Unfortunately there’s nothing you can do about a family history of having small bones, being thin, Asian, and white. These are uncontrollable factors that contribute to a higher risk of osteoporosis in these select groups. But there are steps you can take to help protect yourself.
Being mindful of preexisting conditions, (darest I say this during the current health care debate?), there are some things that can be taken to reduce your bone loss. The number one suggestion, if you are a smoker, is to quit smoking. Since the early 60’s we have known about the dangers of smoking.
Smoking reduces your bodies’ ability to absorb calcium in your intestine and calcium is a prime mineral necessary for building strong bones. Smoking, at least from a woman’s standpoint, may inhibit the amount of estrogen that is produced by her body.