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200617 Bone Health Exercise Recommendations

200617 Bone Health Exercise Recommendations

The mode of exercise should be a combination of weight bearing and endurance activities such as stair climbing, tennis, jogging and jumping. Add in regular sessions of resistance training to round out the weeks program.

The intensity level of all these exertions has to be in the moderate to high ranges in order to engage the bone loading force mechanisms leading to high quality rebuilding of these tissues.

The resistance training level of intensity will be in the 80-85% areas for the majority of the selected movements. The selected exercises are those that involve the major muscle groups that focus on the shoulders, chest, upper back and the legs front and rear. Repetitions will be in the 6-8 range for two to four sets with two to three minutes rest between sets.

These exercise sessions need to be at least as frequent as 3-5 times per week for the weight bearing endurance activities and 2-3 times per week for the resistance ones in order to elicit a positive effect on the skeletal structure.

Once these regimes are in place the desired time spent on each one per session is 30-80 minutes per day. This will be a combination of both types of exercise and not just one of the two recommended modes.

130617 Exercise suggestions for increasing bone mineral density

130617 Exercise suggestions for increasing bone mineral density

Before engaging in any new exercise program consult with your primary health care provider.

To increase your lean body mass, add strength and power, follow these guidelines for the suggested group of exercises:

1. Full body resistance training program on a schedule of at least two times per week, with three times to optimize the results.
2. Utilize correct exercise technique at all times
3. Three sets of ten to twelve repetitions each exercise unless otherwise noted.
4. Work to rest ratio is 1:2, meaning if you work out for ten seconds you then rest for twenty seconds.
5. If you are able to add weight after completing the series three times, then do so the next session.
6. If you have added weight then do only ten repetitions and work up to twelve.

Warm up for 5-8 minutes
Squats
Calf raises
Dead lifts
Military presses
Shoulder shrugs
Abdominal work-15-20 reps for two sets
Bench presses
Bar bell rows
Barbell curls
Triceps extensions
Abdominal work again to end the session-15-20 reps for two sets

 

060617 Mechanical load consists of the following:

060617 Mechanical load consists of the following:

Magnitude of force

Magnitude of the load density or the intensity of the load will generally be above eighty to ninety percent one to ten repetition maximum in order to see improvements in the tissue response.

Speed of force development

The rate or speed of loading means how fast the force is being applied to move the load in a concentric muscle contraction (force applied against a weight with the muscles shortening). Think speed during the lift.

The direction of forces

Varying the direction and pattern of movement will stress the bone and the attaching musculature. Full range of motion in all exercises ensures to a certain extent that the forces are applied as required.

Volume of force applied

The first three mentioned above are primarily responsible for bone mineral improvements. Typically the repetitions do not need to exceed thirty to thirty five to see improvements IF the load is within the correct intensity zone (80%-90% 1-10RM).

Exercise prescriptions for bone growth stimulation*

  1. Volume 10 reps for 3-6 sets
    2. Load 1-10 RM at 80%-90%
    3. Rest 1-4 minutes between sets
    4. Variation Undulating periodization patterns
    5. Exercise selection Structural, multi-joint, large muscle groups

    *Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning
    Baechle, T. R., Earle, R.W. Human Kinetics 2001

Summary:

The greater the magnitude or intensity, the higher and faster the power output, and the direction of force all contribute to the successful laying down of new bone growth.

300517 The stimulus for new bone formations.

300517 The stimulus for new bone formations.

Minimal essential strain (MES) refers to the threshold amount of stress applied to the structure which is necessary to elicit growth of new bone material. A force exceeding MES is required to signal the osteoblasts to move toward the periosteum and begin this transformation. MES is thought to be 1/10 of the breaking force needed to fracture the bone. Training effects have a positive relationship to bone density just as sedentary living habits play a role in the loss of bone density.

Training to increase bone formation

Programs designed to stimulate bone growth, also known as bone mineral density (BMS), will incorporate the following characteristics:

  1. Specificity of loading
    2. Proper exercise selection
    3. Progressive overload
    4. Variation

Specificity of loading will see the exercise patterns emphasizing specific areas in need of assistance. New or unusual forces in varying angles of stress will enable your bones to adapt to the greater intensities. Military presses, bench presses, upright shoulder shrugs, push ups, chin ups, plus other similar exercises would help develop stronger upper body bones. Lower body exercises selections would be along the lines of these types of movement patterns: squats, calf raises, dead lifts, and straight leg dead lifts.

Exercise selection promotes osteogenic stimuli (factors that stimulate new bone formation) and will exhibit these characteristics: Compound exercise muscle movements consisting of multi joint, structural loading and varying force vectors. Such exercises are the squat, dead lift, military press and the bench press along with the Olympic style moves.

Progressive overload

Greater than normal loads force the body to adapt in a positive manner regarding new bone formation. This response is greater if the load changes are dramatic and repetitive in nature. Younger bones may be more receptive to osteogenic changes in the load variance than older bones.

Variations of exercise selections

The body adapts quickly to imposed loads per the SAID (Specific Adaptation to Imposed Loads) principle. In order to prevent accommodation the exercises need to be varied on a periodic basis. There are many individual differences in the same exercise. As an example the squat has at least seventy variations! And these variations do not include any machine versions.

230517 Adaptation of Bone to Exercise

230517 Adaptation of Bone to Exercise

By Danny M. O’Dell, MA.CSCS*D

Background information-briefly stated

Bone is considered a connective tissue that when stressed, deforms and adapts as a result of the load. To meet the strain imposed upon the external structure caused by the bending, compressive, torsional loads and the muscular contractions at the tendinous insertion point’s osteoblasts migrate to the surface of the bone.

At the point of the strain, immediate modeling of the bone begins. Proteins form a matrix between the bone cells. This causes the bone to become denser due to the calcification process occurring during the growth response to the load.

The new growth occurs on the outside of the bone to allow the manufacture of new cells to continue in the limited space with in the bone itself. This outer layer is commonly known as the periosteum.

Adaptations take place at different rates in the axial skeleton (skull/cranium, vertebral, ribs, and sternum) and the appendicular skeleton (shoulder, hips, pelvis and the long bones of the upper and lower body-essentially the arms and legs). This is due to the differences in the bone types- trabecular (spongy) and cortical (compact) bone.

160517 The major keys to good bone health

160517 The major keys to good bone health

*Exercise plays a highly beneficial role in maintaining bone integrity and preventing fractures by increasing the strength of the bones.

*Bone mineral density is directly related to long term physical activity via load bearing, impact exercise regimens.

*The loss of bone mineral density weakens the bones and makes them susceptible to a fracture.

*The sites most frequently fractured are in the hip, spine, and wrist.

Summary:

Take care of your health by exercising, eating right and having yearly full physical exams.

090517 Osteoporosis strength training

090517 Osteoporosis strength training

High impact exercise such as these listed builds stronger bones

  • Vertical jumps
  • Skipping rope
  • Jogging in place
  • Knees semi straight hops in place
  • Ankle hops
  • March around your home or gym with dumbbells or extra weight on your shoulders

Weight bearing aerobics

  • Walk with a set of dumbbells. Avoid repetitive motion injuries by switching up on your method of carrying the extra weight on your walk or run.

There is a delayed response of up to six months before changes in your bone mineral density will be noticeable. Weight bearing and bone load bearing lowers your risk of fractures.

020405 Improving your bone mineral density

020405 Improving your bone mineral density

Over time your bones gradually lose their strength and become porous and brittle. This can lead to bone fractures, and depending on the circumstances, a hospital stay.

The bones in your body are constantly evolving by a process known as remodeling, in which the old bone material is replaced by new bone material. A young person has the ability to make bone faster than it is broken down and it is this capability that causes bone mass to peak in the mid thirties. After that, the remodeling process is slower and bone may be lost than gained. This can lead to osteopenia and the more serious condition known as osteoporosis. It is this latter stage that can lead to fractures. Women automatically lose bone integrity due to menopause.

Menopause causes a decline in the production of the hormone estrogen an important ingredient for bone health. Bone loss can rapidly accelerate anywhere from one to three percent a year until age sixty. At this point bone loss decreases but doesn’t stop completely.

Men also lose bone density, but not at the higher rates of a female. Moreover the onset of the men’s osteoporosis generally shows up a decade later than a woman’s.

Unfortunately there’s nothing you can do about a family history of having small bones, being thin, Asian, and white. These are uncontrollable factors that contribute to a higher risk of osteoporosis in these select groups. But there are steps you can take to help protect yourself.

Being mindful of preexisting conditions, (darest I say this during the current health care debate?), there are some things that can be taken to reduce your bone loss. The number one suggestion, if you are a smoker, is to quit smoking. Since the early 60’s we have known about the dangers of smoking.

Smoking reduces your bodies’ ability to absorb calcium in your intestine and calcium is a prime mineral necessary for building strong bones. Smoking, at least from a woman’s standpoint, may inhibit the amount of estrogen that is produced by her body.

250417 Osteoporosis: Questions and answers about bone health

250417 Osteoporosis: Questions and answers about bone health

Osteoporosis, a disease of the bones, causes a loss of structural integrity. Simply put, your bones get weaker and weaker by becoming brittle, more porous, and prone to fracture.

Controlling bone loss begins early on in life with good nutrition and exercise. Using weight bearing exercises and adding strength training to your daily activity loads the bones. This makes them adapt and become stronger. Absorbing enough calcium and vitamin D throughout your life is another preventive measure.

Limiting alcohol consumption and cutting out smoking will contribute to your bone health. Certain medications stop or slow down the deterioration within the bones. One potential benefit of being overweight is that it loads the bones and makes them compensate by becoming stronger. It is a commonly known fact that fat tissue produces estrogen. This hormone has an important part in the development and upkeep in the bone mineral density of the skeletal bones.

Women are well aware of the part estrogen plays in keeping their bones healthy. Once menopause arrives, their estrogen production slows to a near stop. This leaves the bones susceptible to osteopenia [ 1] or osteoporosis. However, being overweight is not the answer to better bone health as obesity carries major debilitating health risks such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke…the list is nearly endless. If you are overweight, then start now and take steps to get rid of the excess fat.

Thinner, to a point, is healthier. If you have been at or under 127 pounds most of your life you probably have a lower bone mineral density. This can predispose you for osteoporosis later on in life because your bones have not had to adapt to a heavy load, which will make them stronger.

In this case adding a special emphasis on load bearing exercise such as running, jogging, skipping rope, weight lifting, or walking will be to your benefit. In the case of a thin or smaller sized woman, if you have had fractures in the past and are now entering menopause now would be a good time to get a baseline bone density screening.

180417 Osteoporosis: The risk factors

180417 Osteoporosis: The risk factors

Some risk factors are under your control whereas others are not. Here is a brief list for your consideration.

1. Gender-of the ten million people with osteoporosis in the United States 80% of these are women. Particularly affected, and at increased risk for the disease, are Caucasian and Asian women.

2. As you grow older your risk increases.

3. Your diet and health history habits make contributions to the disease. Drinking alcohol and smoking, along with a lack of calcium and vitamin D and exercise hasten the onset of this bone weakening condition.

4. Other health conditions such as hyperthyroidism, chronic kidney disease and rheumatoid arthritis seem to predispose a person to osteoporosis.

5. Medications such as thyroid medication and oral steroids can damage the bones.

More to follow.

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