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200617 Bone Health Exercise Recommendations

200617 Bone Health Exercise Recommendations

The mode of exercise should be a combination of weight bearing and endurance activities such as stair climbing, tennis, jogging and jumping. Add in regular sessions of resistance training to round out the weeks program.

The intensity level of all these exertions has to be in the moderate to high ranges in order to engage the bone loading force mechanisms leading to high quality rebuilding of these tissues.

The resistance training level of intensity will be in the 80-85% areas for the majority of the selected movements. The selected exercises are those that involve the major muscle groups that focus on the shoulders, chest, upper back and the legs front and rear. Repetitions will be in the 6-8 range for two to four sets with two to three minutes rest between sets.

These exercise sessions need to be at least as frequent as 3-5 times per week for the weight bearing endurance activities and 2-3 times per week for the resistance ones in order to elicit a positive effect on the skeletal structure.

Once these regimes are in place the desired time spent on each one per session is 30-80 minutes per day. This will be a combination of both types of exercise and not just one of the two recommended modes.

130617 Exercise suggestions for increasing bone mineral density

130617 Exercise suggestions for increasing bone mineral density

Before engaging in any new exercise program consult with your primary health care provider.

To increase your lean body mass, add strength and power, follow these guidelines for the suggested group of exercises:

1. Full body resistance training program on a schedule of at least two times per week, with three times to optimize the results.
2. Utilize correct exercise technique at all times
3. Three sets of ten to twelve repetitions each exercise unless otherwise noted.
4. Work to rest ratio is 1:2, meaning if you work out for ten seconds you then rest for twenty seconds.
5. If you are able to add weight after completing the series three times, then do so the next session.
6. If you have added weight then do only ten repetitions and work up to twelve.

Warm up for 5-8 minutes
Squats
Calf raises
Dead lifts
Military presses
Shoulder shrugs
Abdominal work-15-20 reps for two sets
Bench presses
Bar bell rows
Barbell curls
Triceps extensions
Abdominal work again to end the session-15-20 reps for two sets

 

060617 Mechanical load consists of the following:

060617 Mechanical load consists of the following:

Magnitude of force

Magnitude of the load density or the intensity of the load will generally be above eighty to ninety percent one to ten repetition maximum in order to see improvements in the tissue response.

Speed of force development

The rate or speed of loading means how fast the force is being applied to move the load in a concentric muscle contraction (force applied against a weight with the muscles shortening). Think speed during the lift.

The direction of forces

Varying the direction and pattern of movement will stress the bone and the attaching musculature. Full range of motion in all exercises ensures to a certain extent that the forces are applied as required.

Volume of force applied

The first three mentioned above are primarily responsible for bone mineral improvements. Typically the repetitions do not need to exceed thirty to thirty five to see improvements IF the load is within the correct intensity zone (80%-90% 1-10RM).

Exercise prescriptions for bone growth stimulation*

  1. Volume 10 reps for 3-6 sets
    2. Load 1-10 RM at 80%-90%
    3. Rest 1-4 minutes between sets
    4. Variation Undulating periodization patterns
    5. Exercise selection Structural, multi-joint, large muscle groups

    *Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning
    Baechle, T. R., Earle, R.W. Human Kinetics 2001

Summary:

The greater the magnitude or intensity, the higher and faster the power output, and the direction of force all contribute to the successful laying down of new bone growth.

300517 The stimulus for new bone formations.

300517 The stimulus for new bone formations.

Minimal essential strain (MES) refers to the threshold amount of stress applied to the structure which is necessary to elicit growth of new bone material. A force exceeding MES is required to signal the osteoblasts to move toward the periosteum and begin this transformation. MES is thought to be 1/10 of the breaking force needed to fracture the bone. Training effects have a positive relationship to bone density just as sedentary living habits play a role in the loss of bone density.

Training to increase bone formation

Programs designed to stimulate bone growth, also known as bone mineral density (BMS), will incorporate the following characteristics:

  1. Specificity of loading
    2. Proper exercise selection
    3. Progressive overload
    4. Variation

Specificity of loading will see the exercise patterns emphasizing specific areas in need of assistance. New or unusual forces in varying angles of stress will enable your bones to adapt to the greater intensities. Military presses, bench presses, upright shoulder shrugs, push ups, chin ups, plus other similar exercises would help develop stronger upper body bones. Lower body exercises selections would be along the lines of these types of movement patterns: squats, calf raises, dead lifts, and straight leg dead lifts.

Exercise selection promotes osteogenic stimuli (factors that stimulate new bone formation) and will exhibit these characteristics: Compound exercise muscle movements consisting of multi joint, structural loading and varying force vectors. Such exercises are the squat, dead lift, military press and the bench press along with the Olympic style moves.

Progressive overload

Greater than normal loads force the body to adapt in a positive manner regarding new bone formation. This response is greater if the load changes are dramatic and repetitive in nature. Younger bones may be more receptive to osteogenic changes in the load variance than older bones.

Variations of exercise selections

The body adapts quickly to imposed loads per the SAID (Specific Adaptation to Imposed Loads) principle. In order to prevent accommodation the exercises need to be varied on a periodic basis. There are many individual differences in the same exercise. As an example the squat has at least seventy variations! And these variations do not include any machine versions.

160517 The major keys to good bone health

160517 The major keys to good bone health

*Exercise plays a highly beneficial role in maintaining bone integrity and preventing fractures by increasing the strength of the bones.

*Bone mineral density is directly related to long term physical activity via load bearing, impact exercise regimens.

*The loss of bone mineral density weakens the bones and makes them susceptible to a fracture.

*The sites most frequently fractured are in the hip, spine, and wrist.

Summary:

Take care of your health by exercising, eating right and having yearly full physical exams.

090517 Osteoporosis strength training

090517 Osteoporosis strength training

High impact exercise such as these listed builds stronger bones

  • Vertical jumps
  • Skipping rope
  • Jogging in place
  • Knees semi straight hops in place
  • Ankle hops
  • March around your home or gym with dumbbells or extra weight on your shoulders

Weight bearing aerobics

  • Walk with a set of dumbbells. Avoid repetitive motion injuries by switching up on your method of carrying the extra weight on your walk or run.

There is a delayed response of up to six months before changes in your bone mineral density will be noticeable. Weight bearing and bone load bearing lowers your risk of fractures.

080417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach. (2/2)

080417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach. (2/2)

Continued from 030417

The study by doctors in Seattle also noted that insulin resistant people with excess abdominal fat also appeared to show higher concentrations of a substance known as apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a “good” form of cholesterol. Previous studies have suggested that high levels of apoB may encourage the development of arteriosclerosis.

Study author Dr. Steven E. Kahn of the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, Washington, states that he and his colleagues suspect that a potbelly likely precedes insulin resistance. Once both conditions have set in, he noted, people’s bodies are more likely to be primed to develop arteriosclerosis.”We think that the deposition of fat in the inside of the abdomen is the critical determinant of insulin resistance in the general population,” Kahn said. “We think that the fat begets the insulin resistance, which helps produce” risk factors for arteriosclerosis, he added.

Kahn’s is not the first study to identify health hazards of potbellies. Although body fat tends to relocate to the abdomen with age, past research has shown that excess belly fat, compared to fat elsewhere on the body, can increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as up the chances of stroke in middle age.

In the current study, Kahn and his colleagues measured body fat distribution and screened for insulin resistance in 196 people. The authors also determined how much choesterol, fat, and apoB was present in each participant’s blood.

The average age of study participants was 53. They were all seemingly healthy, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

Reporting in the January issue of Diabetes, Kahn and his colleagues discovered that people with bigger potbellies who were more resistant to insulin also had lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol–the “bad” form of cholesterol.

Risk factors for arteriosclerosis appeared to be linked more strongly to tummy size than to whether a person had insulin resistance, Kahn and his team note.

The current study findings suggest that even people who are not obese can be at risk of arteriosclerosis, the authors note. Seemingly slim people can carry excess tummy fat and be resistant to insulin, they write, and can therefore be at risk for the blood vessel disease.

In an interview, Kahn noted that abdominal fat could play an essential role in people’s risk of future disease. Specifically, he said having a pot belly “is a critical component of metabolic syndrome,” a condition marked by insulin resistance and high blood pressure, and which often precedes diabetes and cardiovascular disease. SOURCE: Diabetes 2003;52:172-179.

030417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach.(1/2)

030417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach.(1/2)

By Danny M. O’Dell, MA. CSCS*D

According to recent research, those who have a large potbelly appear to have a higher risk of arteriosclerosis. This is the medical term for the fatty buildup on the lining of arteries that researchers now believe increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. SOURCE: Diabetes 2003;52:172-179

People who carried this “spare tire” of fat around their waists are more likely to have increased fat and cholesterol in their blood.

The study by doctors in Seattle also noted that insulin resistant people with excess abdominal fat also appeared to show higher concentrations of a substance known as apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a “good” form of cholesterol. Previous studies have suggested that high levels of apoB may encourage the development of arteriosclerosis.

Study author Dr. Steven E. Kahn of the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, Washington, states that he and his colleagues suspect that a potbelly likely precedes insulin resistance. Once both conditions have set in, he noted, people’s bodies are more likely to be primed to develop arteriosclerosis.”We think that the deposition of fat in the inside of the abdomen is the critical determinant of insulin resistance in the general population,” Kahn said. “We think that the fat begets the insulin resistance, which helps produce” risk factors for arteriosclerosis, he added.

Kahn’s is not the first study to identify health hazards of potbellies. Although body fat tends to relocate to the abdomen with age, past research has shown that excess belly fat, compared to fat elsewhere on the body, can increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as up the chances of stroke in middle age.

In the current study, Kahn and his colleagues measured body fat distribution and screened for insulin resistance in 196 people. The authors also determined how much choesterol, fat, and apoB was present in each participant’s blood.

The average age of study participants was 53. They were all seemingly healthy, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

Reporting in the January issue of Diabetes, Kahn and his colleagues discovered that people with bigger potbellies who were more resistant to insulin also had lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol–the “bad” form of cholesterol.

200317 Fluid replacement-Water and the body-why we need it (2/3)

200317 Fluid replacement-Water and the body-why we need it 

In the book Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (page 247), it states that a fluid loss of around 1% of body weight will increase core temperature with a disproportionate rise in heart rate. These increases in temperature causes further fluid loss and the cycle repeats itself.

Plasma volume becomes reduced when sweating causes a fluid loss of 2-3% body mass. The blood thickens, which makes the heart work harder at pumping it through out the body. As dehydration progresses and plasma volume decreases, peripheral blood flow and sweating rate are reduced and thermo regulation becomes progressively more difficult. (Page 509 reference #1)

A 5% dehydration of the body mass significantly increases rectal temperature and decreases sweating rate. There is 25-30% decrease in stroke volume from the heart that is not off set by a higher heart rate so the system output and arterial blood pressure decline. For each liter of sweat loss, the heart rate increases by about eight beats per minute, with a corresponding decrease in cardiac output. “The primary aim of fluid replacement is to maintain plasma volume so that circulation and sweating progress at optimal levels”.

In Essentials of Strength and Conditioning, it (page 247) states that at 7% body weight loss a collapse is likely. Obviously, this is a serious condition if left unchecked.

Ultimately, the strain on the circulatory system impairs the thermo regulation of the body. (Page 507 reference #1)

Thirst is not a good indicator of hydration level as it normally lags behind the body’s needs. Each adult requires from 2-3 quarts of water/fluid daily, less than that, will gradually result in a dehydrated state over a period.

Indicators of the need for more fluid in the body that are relatively simple to monitor are (Page 247 reference #2)

  • Dark yellow urine (unless excessive vitamin intake has occurred)
  • Strong smelling urine
  • Decrease times of having to urinate
  • A rapid resting heart rate
  • Muscle soreness that lingers longer than normal

Normal urine loss for an adult is about 4 times per day for a total of about 1.2 quarts. This means the elimination of 8-10 fluid ounces about 4 times per day. If a person is drinking over and above the normal requirements bathroom breaks could occur more often. If this is not the case, and you are not drinking excessively, perhaps a check for diabetes is in order.

180317 Fluid replacement-Water and the body-why we need it (1/3)

180317 Fluid replacement-Water and the body-why we need it

Background information

Water “serves as the body’s transport and reactive medium: Diffusion of gasses always takes place across surfaces moistened with water. (Page 53 reference # 1)

  • Nutrients and gases are transported in aqueous solution.
  • Waste products leave the body in urine and feces
  • Water has tremendous heat-stabilizing qualities because it can absorb considerable heat with only a small change in temperature.
  • Water lubricates joints
  • And finally because it is essentially incompressible it helps give structure and form to the body through the turgor (the normal fullness of the blood vessels and capillaries) it provides for body tissues.”
  • Dehydration and its effects on the body.

Most studies relating to dehydration have been conducted for sports or military related reasons, but the results are the same; the body has to have fluids to run efficiently. It needs to replace these lost fluids in order to remain cool enough to properly function. If not, then heat builds up. The body attempts to lessen this raising of the core temperature by various mechanisms such as breathing faster or sweating more. If enough sweat is produced, dehydration cannot be far behind.

Sweat causes the body to lose electrolytes specifically sodium, potassium, chloride and magnesium. Each one of these electrolytes has an impact on, and is crucial to muscle and nerve activity. (Page 246 reference #2)

Therefore, lots of sweating over long periods can, and will, affect your ability and level of mental and physical performance. In fact, if sweating is heavy enough for an extended time (several hours) sweat fatigue may result. Sweat gland fatigue can cause an inability of the sweat glands to regulate core temperature. This is the body’s main mechanism for heat dissipation; should it be disrupted serious consequences result. (Page 408 reference #1)

Our body mass consists of 40-60% water, with muscle containing about 65-75% water, and fat having about 50% water. Excessive water/electrolyte losses impair heat tolerance and physical performance. This can lead to severe dysfunction in the form of heat cramps, heat exhaustion and finally heat stroke, which can be life threatening. (Page, 51-reference #1)

Much of the fluid loss is called extra cellular, meaning fluids that surround and bathe the cells (blood plasma, lymph, saliva, fluid in the eyes, fluid secreted by the glands, fluid that bathes the spinal cord and fluid excreted from the skin and kidneys). Blood plasma accounts for 20% of the extra cellular fluid (between 3 and 4 liters). (Page 53 reference #1)

Continued next week.

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