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180417 Osteoporosis: The risk factors

180417 Osteoporosis: The risk factors

Some risk factors are under your control whereas others are not. Here is a brief list for your consideration.

1. Gender-of the ten million people with osteoporosis in the United States 80% of these are women. Particularly affected, and at increased risk for the disease, are Caucasian and Asian women.

2. As you grow older your risk increases.

3. Your diet and health history habits make contributions to the disease. Drinking alcohol and smoking, along with a lack of calcium and vitamin D and exercise hasten the onset of this bone weakening condition.

4. Other health conditions such as hyperthyroidism, chronic kidney disease and rheumatoid arthritis seem to predispose a person to osteoporosis.

5. Medications such as thyroid medication and oral steroids can damage the bones.

More to follow.

100417 Acute Hormonal Responses to Varying Protocols in Men and Women

A recent study by William J. Kraemer and associates showed the hormonal response benefits of three separate types of maximum heavy resistance training protocols. This group examined the response effects from the bench press, sit up and bilateral leg extensions exercises based upon percentages of the maximal ten repetition, five set scheme with a two minute rest between each set.

The three exercise program variances were:

Heavy maximal 10 repetition maximal (10 RM) loads of five sets of ten repetitions with a two minute rest in between the sets.

Submaximal heavy resistance 70% of the 10 RM.

Maximal Explosive resistance of 40% 10 RM

The results were pretty clear after the study was finished as to which protocol released the greatest amount of growth hormones. There was a significant increase in the serum growth hormone after the heavy maximal ten rep/five sets were completed. And, this was true in both men and women, but more so for the men than the women. Serum testosterone significantly increased in the men, but not the women and only while engaging in the heavy maximal sessions.

Since these two substances are critical to long-term adaptations of strength and power this study may help in the long-term process of inducing greater muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength development.

Adapting the heavy loading hypertrophic type of exercise sessions appears to foster growth in the muscle mass for men if they use the heavy maximal load for ten reps and five sets with the suggested two-minute rest in between sets. These hormonal responses seem to be related to the amount of muscle mass activated in the exercises. Using the submaximal and the explosive maximal loads did not elicit increases in the release of these hormones, as it was not strenuous enough to the organism.

Neural control and the achievement of higher rates of force development are fostered, at least in the men, with the explosive maximal loads. Whereas in the women the responses after exercising with explosive maximal weights did not seem to be that clear cut. For women it would seem best to train with the explosive maximal and the heavier maximal loads.

080417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach. (2/2)

080417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach. (2/2)

Continued from 030417

The study by doctors in Seattle also noted that insulin resistant people with excess abdominal fat also appeared to show higher concentrations of a substance known as apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a “good” form of cholesterol. Previous studies have suggested that high levels of apoB may encourage the development of arteriosclerosis.

Study author Dr. Steven E. Kahn of the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, Washington, states that he and his colleagues suspect that a potbelly likely precedes insulin resistance. Once both conditions have set in, he noted, people’s bodies are more likely to be primed to develop arteriosclerosis.”We think that the deposition of fat in the inside of the abdomen is the critical determinant of insulin resistance in the general population,” Kahn said. “We think that the fat begets the insulin resistance, which helps produce” risk factors for arteriosclerosis, he added.

Kahn’s is not the first study to identify health hazards of potbellies. Although body fat tends to relocate to the abdomen with age, past research has shown that excess belly fat, compared to fat elsewhere on the body, can increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as up the chances of stroke in middle age.

In the current study, Kahn and his colleagues measured body fat distribution and screened for insulin resistance in 196 people. The authors also determined how much choesterol, fat, and apoB was present in each participant’s blood.

The average age of study participants was 53. They were all seemingly healthy, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

Reporting in the January issue of Diabetes, Kahn and his colleagues discovered that people with bigger potbellies who were more resistant to insulin also had lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol–the “bad” form of cholesterol.

Risk factors for arteriosclerosis appeared to be linked more strongly to tummy size than to whether a person had insulin resistance, Kahn and his team note.

The current study findings suggest that even people who are not obese can be at risk of arteriosclerosis, the authors note. Seemingly slim people can carry excess tummy fat and be resistant to insulin, they write, and can therefore be at risk for the blood vessel disease.

In an interview, Kahn noted that abdominal fat could play an essential role in people’s risk of future disease. Specifically, he said having a pot belly “is a critical component of metabolic syndrome,” a condition marked by insulin resistance and high blood pressure, and which often precedes diabetes and cardiovascular disease. SOURCE: Diabetes 2003;52:172-179.

030417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach.(1/2)

030417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach.(1/2)

By Danny M. O’Dell, MA. CSCS*D

According to recent research, those who have a large potbelly appear to have a higher risk of arteriosclerosis. This is the medical term for the fatty buildup on the lining of arteries that researchers now believe increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. SOURCE: Diabetes 2003;52:172-179

People who carried this “spare tire” of fat around their waists are more likely to have increased fat and cholesterol in their blood.

The study by doctors in Seattle also noted that insulin resistant people with excess abdominal fat also appeared to show higher concentrations of a substance known as apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a “good” form of cholesterol. Previous studies have suggested that high levels of apoB may encourage the development of arteriosclerosis.

Study author Dr. Steven E. Kahn of the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, Washington, states that he and his colleagues suspect that a potbelly likely precedes insulin resistance. Once both conditions have set in, he noted, people’s bodies are more likely to be primed to develop arteriosclerosis.”We think that the deposition of fat in the inside of the abdomen is the critical determinant of insulin resistance in the general population,” Kahn said. “We think that the fat begets the insulin resistance, which helps produce” risk factors for arteriosclerosis, he added.

Kahn’s is not the first study to identify health hazards of potbellies. Although body fat tends to relocate to the abdomen with age, past research has shown that excess belly fat, compared to fat elsewhere on the body, can increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as up the chances of stroke in middle age.

In the current study, Kahn and his colleagues measured body fat distribution and screened for insulin resistance in 196 people. The authors also determined how much choesterol, fat, and apoB was present in each participant’s blood.

The average age of study participants was 53. They were all seemingly healthy, with no history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

Reporting in the January issue of Diabetes, Kahn and his colleagues discovered that people with bigger potbellies who were more resistant to insulin also had lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol–the “bad” form of cholesterol.

010417 Recovery methods employed after heavy exercise. (2/2)

010417 Recovery methods employed after heavy exercise.

By Danny M. O’Dell, M.A.CSCS*D

Let us briefly discuss a few of these and the way in which they are applied during the recovery process. Use these various modalities between sets or between days of training. Experiment until you have found the ones that work best for you.

Use of the various means of recovery should be included as a part of the over all design package of your work out plan. You will find some that fit you very well, just as some exercise seem to be tailor made especially for you. However, keep varying the different modalities, as your body will soon accustom itself to those, which are applied most frequently. The benefits will diminish if they are over used. The bottom line on the issue is this: just as you change your exercise selections around each training day so must you change your recovery modes around.

The most intensive recovery methods are utilized after the heaviest workouts. Apply the recovery modes not just directly after the workout, but later in the day after your body has adjusted to the stress of the training session. Wait at least three hours before starting the recovery process. If you wait 6-9 hours, the recovery is made much more effective and will raise the work capacity higher the next day.

030417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach. (1/2)

030417 Spare tire risks associated with carrying fat around your stomach.

By Danny M. O’Dell, MA. CSCS*D

According to recent research, those who have a large potbelly appear to have a higher risk of arteriosclerosis. This is the medical term for the fatty buildup on the lining of arteries that researchers now believe increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. SOURCE: Diabetes 2003;52:172-179

People who carried this “spare tire” of fat around their waists are more likely to have increased fat and cholesterol in their blood.

The study by doctors in Seattle also noted that insulin resistant people with excess abdominal fat also appeared to show higher concentrations of a substance known as apolipoprotein B (apoB) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a “good” form of cholesterol. Previous studies have suggested that high levels of apoB may encourage the development of arteriosclerosis.

Study author Dr. Steven E. Kahn of the VA Puget Sound Health Care System in Seattle, Washington, states that he and his colleagues suspect that a potbelly likely precedes insulin resistance. Once both conditions have set in, he noted, people’s bodies are more likely to be primed to develop arteriosclerosis.”We think that the deposition of fat in the inside of the abdomen is the critical determinant of insulin resistance in the general population,” Kahn said. “We think that the fat begets the insulin resistance, which helps produce” risk factors for arteriosclerosis, he added.

200317 Fluid replacement-Water and the body-why we need it (2/3)

200317 Fluid replacement-Water and the body-why we need it 

In the book Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (page 247), it states that a fluid loss of around 1% of body weight will increase core temperature with a disproportionate rise in heart rate. These increases in temperature causes further fluid loss and the cycle repeats itself.

Plasma volume becomes reduced when sweating causes a fluid loss of 2-3% body mass. The blood thickens, which makes the heart work harder at pumping it through out the body. As dehydration progresses and plasma volume decreases, peripheral blood flow and sweating rate are reduced and thermo regulation becomes progressively more difficult. (Page 509 reference #1)

A 5% dehydration of the body mass significantly increases rectal temperature and decreases sweating rate. There is 25-30% decrease in stroke volume from the heart that is not off set by a higher heart rate so the system output and arterial blood pressure decline. For each liter of sweat loss, the heart rate increases by about eight beats per minute, with a corresponding decrease in cardiac output. “The primary aim of fluid replacement is to maintain plasma volume so that circulation and sweating progress at optimal levels”.

In Essentials of Strength and Conditioning, it (page 247) states that at 7% body weight loss a collapse is likely. Obviously, this is a serious condition if left unchecked.

Ultimately, the strain on the circulatory system impairs the thermo regulation of the body. (Page 507 reference #1)

Thirst is not a good indicator of hydration level as it normally lags behind the body’s needs. Each adult requires from 2-3 quarts of water/fluid daily, less than that, will gradually result in a dehydrated state over a period.

Indicators of the need for more fluid in the body that are relatively simple to monitor are (Page 247 reference #2)

  • Dark yellow urine (unless excessive vitamin intake has occurred)
  • Strong smelling urine
  • Decrease times of having to urinate
  • A rapid resting heart rate
  • Muscle soreness that lingers longer than normal

Normal urine loss for an adult is about 4 times per day for a total of about 1.2 quarts. This means the elimination of 8-10 fluid ounces about 4 times per day. If a person is drinking over and above the normal requirements bathroom breaks could occur more often. If this is not the case, and you are not drinking excessively, perhaps a check for diabetes is in order.

180317 Fluid replacement-Water and the body-why we need it (1/3)

180317 Fluid replacement-Water and the body-why we need it

Background information

Water “serves as the body’s transport and reactive medium: Diffusion of gasses always takes place across surfaces moistened with water. (Page 53 reference # 1)

  • Nutrients and gases are transported in aqueous solution.
  • Waste products leave the body in urine and feces
  • Water has tremendous heat-stabilizing qualities because it can absorb considerable heat with only a small change in temperature.
  • Water lubricates joints
  • And finally because it is essentially incompressible it helps give structure and form to the body through the turgor (the normal fullness of the blood vessels and capillaries) it provides for body tissues.”
  • Dehydration and its effects on the body.

Most studies relating to dehydration have been conducted for sports or military related reasons, but the results are the same; the body has to have fluids to run efficiently. It needs to replace these lost fluids in order to remain cool enough to properly function. If not, then heat builds up. The body attempts to lessen this raising of the core temperature by various mechanisms such as breathing faster or sweating more. If enough sweat is produced, dehydration cannot be far behind.

Sweat causes the body to lose electrolytes specifically sodium, potassium, chloride and magnesium. Each one of these electrolytes has an impact on, and is crucial to muscle and nerve activity. (Page 246 reference #2)

Therefore, lots of sweating over long periods can, and will, affect your ability and level of mental and physical performance. In fact, if sweating is heavy enough for an extended time (several hours) sweat fatigue may result. Sweat gland fatigue can cause an inability of the sweat glands to regulate core temperature. This is the body’s main mechanism for heat dissipation; should it be disrupted serious consequences result. (Page 408 reference #1)

Our body mass consists of 40-60% water, with muscle containing about 65-75% water, and fat having about 50% water. Excessive water/electrolyte losses impair heat tolerance and physical performance. This can lead to severe dysfunction in the form of heat cramps, heat exhaustion and finally heat stroke, which can be life threatening. (Page, 51-reference #1)

Much of the fluid loss is called extra cellular, meaning fluids that surround and bathe the cells (blood plasma, lymph, saliva, fluid in the eyes, fluid secreted by the glands, fluid that bathes the spinal cord and fluid excreted from the skin and kidneys). Blood plasma accounts for 20% of the extra cellular fluid (between 3 and 4 liters). (Page 53 reference #1)

Continued next week.

130317 Posture-dynamic and static

130317 Posture-dynamic and static

Posture, just the word brings to mind standing at attention with your head up, shoulders back and chest out. In reality it is more than this.

Body posture is both dynamic and at the same time a static action. In fact balance and posture are closely intertwined and in many cases are the same.

Posture affects not only how tall you will grow and how well your internal organs function but your activity and sports performance as well.

Briefly stated, posture can cause positive or negative alterations in the structure of your bones. Problems with your posture cause muscle imbalances, flexibility issues and damage to your joints if continued long term. The results of these changes are back, shoulder and neck pain, all of which, if caused by poor posture, can be alleviated with a conscious awareness of maintaining good posture.

Early on in a person’s life when the body is still developing is the ideal time to establish good posture habits. Doing so allows the body to build a strong useful platform for daily activities and participation in sports.

Good posture means your internal organs have room to grow and be healthy. Improper alignment in the structures of your body puts undue stress on the rest of it causing chronic strain which translates into chronic pain. Some study results have associated chronic pain as being a contributing factor to arthritis later in life.

The spinal column is the supporting base for your entire body and as such needs to be strong and powerful to endure the stresses placed on it throughout the day and for the remainder of your life.

The spine should be solid and flexible (within normal range of motion) while at the same time maintaining the four natural curves at all times. Strengthening the spinal column and the muscles that attach to it will help keep your posture correct and you feeling good about yourself.

110317 Posture and the relationship to strength

110317 Posture and the relationship to strength

The display of strength is influenced by the joint angles of the operating links in the chain. These angles, as would be expected, change with movement. Because of this change, the length of the muscles varies throughout the movement, as does the angle of attachment to the bone.
This means the muscles ability to produce more, or less, force is determined by the angle as the leverages and “moment of muscular force changes the mechanical conditions of work.” This postural condition may benefit strength output if the “force potential of the muscles is used fully” but it can also be “hindrance when only part of their maximal tension can be used.”

Based strictly on observation it is clear that strength is affected either negatively or positively by various postural changes. As an example, most athletes are able to lift more weight in the dead lift than in a straight leg dead lift. This is a classic case of minor changes in the positioning of the links in the chain leading to tremendous strength advantages. In other words if the legs are bent and allowed to participate in the lift much more is hoisted up. It only stands to reason that the more muscles involved the more will be lifted.

Maximal force output at the working joints is truly dependent “upon the position of the system’s links relative to the proximal joints.” For example, the force developed in extension or flexion of the knee joint is determined by the angle at the hip joints. Thus, maximal force in hip extension in the seated position was found to be at an angle of 160° in the knee joint.

“In the leg press (lying on the back)” there was no difference “in knee extension force”…found at hip angles of 100° up to and including 140°’s. “Knee extension strength increases by 10%-12% if the torso is inclined 20° to 25° backward from the vertical with the subject seated in a rowing position. Thus, to produce maximal force in a movement, one must consider anatomical stability and ensure that at crucial moments posture enables the muscles to develop maximal external force.

Summary

Try different stances, different hand grips, and different joint angles during your lifts to increase your power output capacity. Just because Ed Coan or Fred Hatfield squats, a certain way does not mean it will be as effective or efficient for you to do likewise.

Postural changes, however slight, may make big differences in how much maximal force you are able to produce. Try it and see for yourself.

Final note: If you are considering a personal trainer or are training in a local health club, ask about the certification status of the staff. The qualified trainers will be happy to show you their credentials. Remember, it’s your money and more importantly your body, so go with the qualified instructors so you get correct guidance.

* The source of the information comes from the American Physical Therapy Association book entitled BODY MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR. The authors are Marilyn Moffat, PT, Ph.D., FAPTA and Steve Vickery. It is an excellent book that discusses the many systems of the human body.

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