191118 The signs of metabolic health

191118 The signs of metabolic health

One of the best signs of a person’s metabolic health is the size of their waistline. When the first thing someone notices about you is your gut, then you have a health problem. A larger waistline is indicative of this deeper lying visceral fat.

For those of you considering liposuction, this procedure makes only cosmetic changes. It removes the subcutaneous fat but does nothing about the deep fat surrounding your organs.

Since one of the criteria for the metabolic syndrome is a big waist, it may be helpful to know what is considered to be a big waist. For men, a waistline over 40 inches is excessive and for women this number is 35 inches. Anything over these two numbers is too much and predisposes that person to the metabolic syndrome.

121118 Carbohydrates, triglyceride levels and the size of your waist

121118 Carbohydrates, triglyceride levels and the size of your waist

The modern American consumes approximately fifty percent of their daily calories from carbohydrate sources. These high carb diets signal the liver to create more of the previously mentioned Triglyceride rich particles. If the diet includes more than sixty to sixty five carbohydrates then this process increases.

Diets that are high in sugar, fructose being the main cause of the problem, raise the triglyceride levels and in turn stimulate production of triglyceride particles that are rich in very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).

As this substance goes through the bloodstream it loses some of the triglycerides, which eventually ends up as cholesterol loaded with a high concentration of LDL. We know that approximately sixty to eighty percent of the cholesterol coming into the artery wall is from LDL, the rest comes from Chylomicrons and VLDL.

Doctors and research scientists also know that people with high levels of LDL are at an increased risk for a heart attack and that lowering these levels can reduce the same risk. As of now, they do not have the research data to confirm whether lowering the level of triglycerides will do the same thing.

They do know that having both, high levels of LDL and triglycerides, is a heart attack in the making. Women with high triglyceride numbers seem to have a stronger link with heart disease than men do with the same numbers. Why this predictor is not valid for men is unknown at this time.

 

051118 Sport and lifestyle activity-range of motion exercising

051118 Sport and lifestyle activity-range of motion exercising

Your joints and muscles are meant to function within standardized degrees of movement, commonly referred to as the range of motion (ROM). The stronger you are within these ranges, the better protected you will be in preventing injuries from occurring. Therefore when doing your exercise routine keep in mind the following two guidelines:

  1. You gain the most strength within the range of motion (ROM) at which you exercise.
  2. The smaller the range of motion you in the joint, the less will be the carry over strength throughout the rest of the movement.

The basis of every quality strength training or fitness program relies, in part, on these two premises. As an example, let’s look at the squat while explaining these principles.

Many lifters do short range squats, known as high squats, in the gym. They get into a machine or in rare cases under a bar and drop down a few inches and call it good. In many instances this isn’t even to a parallel position, let alone below parallel where they should be before starting back up again. Depending on the load of the bar or on the machine, strength may be increased within this small range of motion but its unlikely this will happen.

This range of movement is too little and does not support normal living activities such as sitting down in a chair and then getting back up. If the strength is not developed within a range that is vital to living an active lifestyle then it is not useful. This group of fitness enthusiasts would be better served by going deeper in their squats, thereby getting a transfer of useable strength into their daily lives. This naturally leads in to the second principle.

An individual or strength athlete will become stronger when training the full range of motion. This expands the strength curve and transfers more useable muscle activity across greater degrees of the joint angle. Greater degree angles of strength protect the joint from injury, especially at the far ranges of motion.

The take home message is don’t cut yourself short with limited range of motion exercises.

Training theories 291018 5/5

Training theories 291018 5/5

Two models of thought predominate the current thinking in strength training. One is ‘supercompensation’ or the one-factor theory, the second is the ‘fitness-fatigue’, also known as the two-factor theory. These two are generalized theories and as such contain only the most essential portions of the training ideas. Extraneous options are not included in this brief snap shot of these two training programs.

A rough rule of thumb with a normal training load is the duration of the fitness gains and the impact of fatigue differ by a factor of three. That is the fatigue effect is three times shorter than the positive effects, which last up to three times longer. As an example if the effects of fatigue last 24 hours, the improvement in fitness lasts 72 hours.

Using the two factor model the coach must keep in mind the two offsetting components of training and plan each follow up session accordingly. Maintenance of preparedness, avoidance of fatigue and continual training sessions comprised of several warm up type sessions prior to a contest. The idea behind this is to decrease the training load during each session rather than reduce the number of training sessions. A tapering off of the training load has been proven to enhance the final strength outcome.

In order to accomplish this feat the intervals between sessions must be long enough so the “negative traces of the preceding workout pass out of existence but the positive fitness gains persists.” This has become a rather popular model for use in planning strength training programs.

Training theories 221018 4/5

Training theories 221018 4/5

Two models of thought predominate the current thinking in strength training. One is ‘supercompensation’ or the one-factor theory, the second is the ‘fitness-fatigue’, also known as the two-factor theory. These two are generalized theories and as such contain only the most essential portions of the training ideas. Extraneous options are not included in this brief snap shot of these two training programs.

Two factor theory (Fitness-fatigue theory)

This “theory of training is much more sophisticated than the supercompensation theory”. Its basis is the premise “that preparedness, characterized by the athlete’s potential sport potential performance is not stable but rather varies with time. There are two components of the athlete’s preparedness:

Those that are slow changing, for example, physical fitness is a slow changing phenomenon. It does not change a substantial amount over short periods of minutes, hours or even days.
Fast changing such as physical fatigue (a temporary lowered ability to work because of disturbed homeostasis resulting from performing this work ), illness, the athlete’s disposition toward competition, intellectual, and sensory inputs may all change quickly.

According to this theory, the immediate effect of the training is a combination of two processes:

  1. The gain in the fitness which was prompted by the workout
  2. Fatigue resulting from the workout

The sum of the two effects is an increase in fitness due to the workout that is offset by a deterioration of fitness due to fatigue. The outcome is a balancing act of positive and negative actions within the body. If the fitness increase is greater than the effects of fatigue, the organism grows stronger. If not the opposite is true.

Training theories 151018 3/5

Training theories 151018 3/5

Two models of thought predominate the current thinking in strength training. One is ‘supercompensation’ or the one-factor theory, the second is the ‘fitness-fatigue’, also known as the two-factor theory. These two are generalized theories and as such contain only the most essential portions of the training ideas. Extraneous options are not included in this brief snap shot of these two training programs.

Several popular methods try to achieve this state. One is overloading in a Microcycle, one heavy cycle of training is followed, after a brief rest, by another heavy training cycle. A lengthy rest and restorative period is then included in the schedule. The belief is that by adhering to this schedule the final supercompensation will be greater than normally results from a training cycle.

A critical look at this theory leads one to believe it may be too simplistic to be of much use any longer. The very fact that supercompensation even exists is not a proven fact in scientific experiments. Glycogen depletion, however, is a fact after heavy exercise. It is a possible to increase glycogen in the cells via a particular program of correct training and carbohydrate loading-but only before important competitions. Replication in everyday training situations has not been proven.

ADP, adenosine triphosphate, generally thought to deplete after heavy exercise in fact shows little change at all in the cells. Other substances require differing amounts of time to restore to initial levels.

It is unclear as to which substance the program planning should be adjusting to in anticipation of a supercompensation result. “In general, the theory of supercompensation is too simple to be correct. Over the last few years it has lost much of it popularity”.

240918 Moving the curve

Moving the curve 240918

Power is developed according to the formula which is the mass moved divided by time it takes to do it. If, for instance, you are moving a two hundred pound barbell from point A to Point B in one second during your early training phase and you decrease the time it takes to move this the same distance then you have increased your power output.

This is important to any lifter as the ability to move massive amounts of weight depends on rapidly and almost instantaneously increasing the force necessary to move the bar from the starting position. This is termed moving the curve to the left. It is also one of the most basic concepts in developing a powerful athlete. You must apply all of your possible force immediately against a heavy weight or an opponent if you expect it to be influenced to any positive degree.

Explosive force is separate from starting strength.

270818 Smith machine explosive plyo benches

Smith machine explosive plyo benches 270818
The limitations to a forceful contraction straight through a move occur at the end of any concentric move. This is the joint activating the ‘braking effect’ about three quarters of the way through, as it nears the end of the movement. This is the mechanism the body uses to protect the joint from tearing itself apart.

Some of the more common ways to short circuit this muscle shut down is through the use of the supine medicine ball toss, and the plyo push ups. An off shoot of the plyometric method for the upper body, specifically for the bench press, is through the use of a non-cable, non-counterbalanced Smith machine.

Warm up as you would for a regular bench press session. After you have warmed up the shoulder and pectoralis regions move over to the Smith Machine. Begin by loading the bar with a LIGHT weight (30-40% of a five rep max to begin with). Make certain the bench is positioned exactly where you intend to bench from-there can be no room for errors from this point forward.

Take the weight and forcefully push it up wards. The difference from a regular Smith machine bench press is this:

Instead of holding onto the bar at the top of the concentric motion and slowing the bar down you let it fly upward. Then you catch it on the down stroke a little bit above your chest then by keeping the amortization phase nano-seconds short ram it up again.

This does two things for your power production:

1. It allows a utilization of the full Range of Motion
2. It helps you produce Power
Go slowly as you learn how to do this great training exercise.

Remember that injuries slow your progress down….

200818 Exercise clothing

 Exercise clothing 200818

Lifting weights implies wearing the correct attire to help prevent injuries from occurring. Some of the personal adornments that have shown up in the gym are just this side of ludicrous and certainly not appropriate in the weight room. Some examples are listed next.

*Large necklaces that make it difficult to rest a bar on the upper torso are something better left in the locker or at home.
*Rings on every finger that dig into the skin during a chin up, curl or dead lift.
*Flip flops or sandals of any sort have no place in the gym.

The last mentioned is in my opinion the most critical of those on the list. A shoe that fully encloses your foot provides a bit of security if a piece of equipment falls and hit the foot. A sandal gives you no protection at all.

Select shoes that give good ankle and solid arch support. They should also provide your foot with superior lateral stability by having good upper support; unlike the smaller low cut running shoes. The shoe also needs to have enough room in the toe box to prevent your toes from rubbing at the tips. If you plan to do lateral cutting drills in your program then make certain the shoes you chose have excellent traction capabilities.

130818 VO2 Max Formula

VO2 Max Formula 130818

By Danny M. O’Dell, M.A. CSCS*D

Interested in what your VO2 Max may be?

Here is a quick method to find out without using high priced equipment. It is equated to how far you are able to run in 12 minutes. K. H. Cooper, of the famed Cooper Institute came up with this equation for aerobic fitness.

The protocol is to warm up efficiently as it will be a maximum effort. Warm up and run on a level course. The course selected should have markings in meters so you know how far you have gone at the conclusion.

The equation:
VO2 max= 33 + 0.17 (x-133)
X is the distance (in meters) covered in one minute

From Science of Sports Training by Thomas Kurz published by Stadion Publishing Company Island Pond, VT.